The Research

  • Introduction
  • Links to Policy
  • The Research
  • Whole-school Approach
  • CHPRC
  • References

While bullying behaviour in schools is widespread and harmful, research conducted at the Child Health Promotion Research Centre (CHPRC) at Edith Cowan University and elsewhere suggests bullying behaviour can be reduced. The CHPRC research team’s ongoing research, via 11 large empirical studies conducted since 1999, has focused primarily on what schools can do to effectively prevent and reduce bullying behaviour.

One of the most effective means to reduce bullying among young people is to enhance their social and emotional understandings and competencies, in developmentally appropriate ways throughout their schooling, using a whole-school approach. Friendly Schools Plus addresses the social and emotional learning of young people, both formally through explicit classroom pedagogy and learning strategies and informally through the development of a whole-school culture, organisation and structures that reinforce and uphold these essential understandings, skills and competencies.

The Friendly Schools Plus initiative is a strengths-based, whole-school participatory process that enables schools to determine their needs and implement current and robust evidence-based policy and practice to enhance students’ social and emotional learning and reduce bullying. In particular, Friendly Schools Plus provides toolkits to assess and augment school staff capacity to recognise, develop and sustain those components of a whole-school approach that support their students’ unique social and emotional learning and foster the prevention of bullying behaviour.

Links to National and International Policy and Practices

Based on 11 major research projects involving more than 27,000 Australian school-age students from pre-primary to Year 10, their teachers and families, this research has focused critically on understanding students’ social development and its relationship to bullying behaviour, seeking locally relevant and practical outcomes while informing national and international policy and practices. It is recognised nationally and internationally as a whole-school evidence-based program that can reduce bullying behaviour.

Links to Australian National Safe Schools Framework

Friendly Schools Plus provides schools with the strategies and tools to achieve the vision and meet all nine elements of the National Safe Schools Framework.

Friendly Schools Plus adapted to the Australian National Safe Schools Framework

Friendly Schools Plus adapted to the Australian National Safe Schools Framework.

Links to the Australian Curriculum

The Friendly Schools Plus program links directly to the personal and social capabilities outlined in the Australian Curriculum.

Friendly Schools Plus links to the Australian Curriculum

Friendly Schools Plus links to the Australian Curriculum.

The Research Supporting the Friendly Schools Plus Resource

The Friendly Schools Plus program is based on 11 major research projects conducted since 1999 involving more than 27,000 Australian school-age students from pre-primary to Year 10. This research has focused critically on understanding student bullying behaviour and seeking locally relevant and practical outcomes, while informing national and international policy and practices. It is recognised nationally and internationally as a successful whole-school evidence-based bullying prevention program.

Bullying-related research 1999-2014

Bullying-related research 1999-2014.

CHPRC research studies have identified ways to strengthen whole-school approaches to reduce all forms of bullying (including cyberbullying) in primary through secondary schools, bullying in Aboriginal contexts, and importantly the prevention of early childhood aggression. These projects have reduced intentional harm from bullying among children and adolescents, and raised awareness of the impact that peers, families, schools and communities can have in preventing bullying behaviour.

The Friendly Schools Plus research began in 1999. The first study, a formative review of research, provided a significant summary of evidence-based findings from international bullying-related research, validated by experts from around the world. These findings were synthesised and operationalised into the primary school-based program, Friendly Schools. The Friendly Schools resource was rigorously tested as part of a randomised control trial (2000-2002) with a cohort tracked for three years of approximately 2000 Year 4 students and their teachers and parents. Year 4 students were targeted initially as more Australian children bully and are bullied in Years 5 and 6 than any other age at school. The Friendly Schools study aimed to ameliorate the increase in bullying behaviour at this age. The results from this study were positive but further research was needed to understand how to reduce the high levels of bullying in primary school children.

The follow-up three-year study, Friendly Schools Friendly Families (2002-2004), involved a randomised control trial of over 4000 students, comprising Year 2, 4 and 6 students, as well as their teachers and parents. The results showed a significant reduction in bullying among the students who received the intervention.

From 2005 to 2007 the CHPRC’s research extended into secondary school students to address the second major increase of bullying behaviour that occurred following students’ transition from primary to secondary school. This project, Supportive Schools, involved a randomised control trial of a whole-school intervention that provided schools, students and parents with strategies to help students prevent or deal with the increase in bullying that typically occurs post-transition. Results indicated that this project reduced the mediators associated with bullying among this age group.

The CHPRC’s fourth largest randomised control trial, the Child Aggression Project began in 2006. This research project followed over 2000 pre-primary school children (and their families) for three years in their schools until they were in Year 2. This study was part of a larger international study with the Montreal GRIP Research Unit in Canada, designed to promote supportive school environments and social relationships that limit aggression and disruptive behaviours among children in the early phases of schooling. The results from Child Aggression Project indicate positive process results and significant interest in these resources from early childhood teachers.

These four large studies recruited insufficient Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children to determine whether mainstream approaches to bullying prevention were effective for these children and adolescents. To address this need, the CHPRC initiated the four-year qualitative Solid Kids, Solid Schools research project in 2006. This research project engaged an Aboriginal Steering group and local Yamaji people to help develop and pilot test a variety of resources targeting young people, their teachers, families and community to reduce the bullying experiences of school-age Aboriginal people. The process data from this research show these resources are well received and used by the Aboriginal community. The Solid Kids, Solid Schools project was extended in 2011 until 2013 to enhance the dissemination and use of this resource in Aboriginal communities.

From 2008 to 2010 the CHPRC conducted a study called Keeping in Touch Plus in conjunction with School Drug Education and Road Aware. This project investigated ways to enhance school teachers’ approachability in times of need, as perceived by students. This process evaluation project provided many important insights and strategies to encourage and enable students to seek help, in response to a problem they may be experiencing. It also enhanced the capacity of teachers to provide more effective support to these students. These findings were used to improve the support offered by schools when students who are bullied, or observe bullying, seek adult support.

Since 2007, with the growth of communication technology and the subsequent use of this technology to bully, the CHPRC has been funded to conduct five major formative projects and one summative research project to investigate student cyberbullying. The first of these studies, the Cyberbullying Formative Study, involved focus groups and interviews with several hundred students, parent and school staff to develop a deeper understanding of the nature and effects of this “new” behaviour.

In 2007, the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations funded the CHPRC to conduct the Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study. This represented the first national prevalence study benchmarking covert bullying in Australia. The study investigated young people’s experiences with covert bullying, including: the nature and types of covert bullying behaviours used by young people; how often and where these behaviours occur; and risk and protective factors that may inhibit or encourage covert bullying behaviour. The study involved triangulation of covert bullying behaviour data collected using mixed methods across three separate studies from a total of 20,832 Australian students aged 8-14 years from over 200 schools and 456 school staff. Results shed new light on covert bullying, especially cyberbullying among school-age children, identifying effective and sustainable policy and practice.

In 2008 a follow-up study called the Cyber Leaders Project actively engaged the input of young people to better understand cyberbullying. This study led to the first Australian state-wide Student Cyber Leader Summit involving 200 Western Australian students. This summit has since been replicated with the training of student “cyber leaders” in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and South Australia. A further large formative study called the Cyber Friendly Parents Study was funded in 2009 to investigate ways to help parents to help their children avoid cyberbullying.

These four formative cyberbullying studies led to the world’s first major randomised control trial called the Cyber Friendly Schools Project, specifically testing interventions targeting student leaders, teachers, students and parents to reduce the prevalence of cyberbullying. The results from this study will become available in 2012. The cyberbullying strategies included in the Friendly Schools Plus resource are based on promising findings to date from this research. Until the Cyber Friendly Schools Project has concluded, the recommended cyberbullying intervention strategies do not have the same high level of evidence rigour as the previous bullying research conducted by the CHPRC.

Lastly, in 2010 the CHPRC began a five-year study to understand the best ways to enhance the capacity of schools throughout Western Australia to provide quality policy and practice to reduce bullying and other forms of social aggression. This project is called Strong Schools Safe Kids. This research and other new research conducted by the CHPRC will continue to inform the Friendly Schools Plus resources produced by the CHPRC at Edith Cowan University. CHPRC Friendly Schools Plus research publications can be found on page 266. For more information about the CHPRC research go to www.chprc.ecu.edu.au.

What is a whole-school approach?

Multi-component whole-school initiatives involving all the school community are more likely to reduce bullying behaviour than single-component programs, such as those involving only classroom curriculum.

A whole-school approach, sometimes referred to as a Health Promoting Schools model, recognises that all aspects of the school community can promote (or reduce) students’ health and wellbeing, and that students’ learning and their health are inextricably linked. Given young people spend much of their first 17 years in a school environment, it is not only the focal point of their academic development but also their social development, where they make friends and develop healthy relationships. Friendly Schools Plus recognises the importance of a whole-school approach and is organised to provide support to schools, not only through formal classroom teaching and learning, but through all aspects of the whole-school environment. To achieve sustainable behaviour change that is integrated, holistic and strategic, it is necessary to implement a whole-school approach rather than focus only on individual behaviour. The essential elements of the Health Promoting Schools approach include:

  • Healthy school policies
  • The schools’ physical environment
  • The schools’ social environment
  • Individual health skills and action competencies (through formal teaching and learning)
  • Community and family links
  • Health services

The multi-component Friendly Schools Plus program has integrated these components of the Health Promoting Schools model into a comprehensive whole-school program with an emphasis on:

  • building staff capacity to implement programs to enhance students’ relationships and reduce bullying
  • providing policies that shape a respectful, welcoming and caring school environment
  • building quality relationships between school students and staff
  • maximising family and other members of community’s involvement
  • scaffolding students’ learning of social and emotional skills, such as self-awareness, self-management and social awareness
  • enabling students to be advocates for and to encourage positive social interpersonal development behaviour online and a targeted behaviour offline
  • supporting students who are frequently bullied or helping perpetrators of bullying to change their behaviour

Friendly Schools Plus brings together the whole-school community to contribute to the development and ongoing maintenance of the friendly and safe culture of the school.

The Friendly Schools Plus implementation model

The Friendly Schools Plus implementation model recognise that whole-school change is sustained when evidence of good practice aligns with real-world school vision and practice and is supported with sufficient capacity (leadership, organisation, competency) to drive an effective implementation process in seven steps.

Friendly Schools Plus implementation model

Friendly Schools Plus implementation model.

Layers of the model

Evidence for Practice – Whole-school vision – Sustainability

Whole-school change is sustained when evidence of good practice aligns with real-world school vision and practice.

The evidence for practice to reduce bullying and enhance social and emotional understandings and competencies is provided through the Friendly Schools Plus resources and Professional Learning. By aligning this current research evidence with the whole-school vision schools can work towards implementing policies and practices in a coordinated and sustained manner.

Capacity for implementation – Leadership – Organisational support – Competencies

Whole-school change is supported with sufficient capacity (leadership, organisation, competency.

The chapter – Building capacity, in Section 3 of this text, will assist schools to build their capacity in the areas of leadership, organisational support and competencies to support implementation of the Friendly Schools Plus initiative.

Seven-step process

Friendly Schools Plus seven-step process supports schools to review, plan, build capacity and implement critical evidence-based actions to effectively respond to their strengths and needs in key areas, identified by the research. Section 2 – The Friendly Schools Plus whole-school approach process provides more information on the Friendly Schools Plus seven-step process.

Schools follow this ongoing process to assess and address these six inter-related key areas:

  • Building capacity
  • Supportive school culture
  • Proactive policies and practices
  • Key understandings and competencies
  • Protective Physical Environment School–family–community partnerships

Friendly Schools Plus Map-the-Gap can be used as a quick online screening tool to help schools identify what they are doing well and what they need to build on in each of the key areas. Schools are then assisted by the Friendly Schools Plus resource Evidence for Practice to identify evidence based practices to address their needs and a comprehensive planning tool to guide the planning process towards improvement.

To ensure sustainability of the Friendly Schools Plus initiative the seven-step process must be seen as an ongoing monitoring and review process that supports the implementation of the resources over time.

About the Child Health Promotion Research Centre

The CHPRC was established in 2004 at Edith Cowan University in Perth, Western Australia. It conducts highly applied (practical) research to improve the physical, mental, emotional and social health and wellbeing of children, adolescents and their families. The CHPRC achieves this by:

  • conducting innovative high quality health promotion research in areas of national priority for children and adolescents
  • actively fostering strong collaborative links with industry, the professions, government agencies and the community to ensure the findings are relevant and can inform state and national policy and practice
  • creating a supportive and stimulating learning culture for undergraduate, postgraduate and other researchers

The CHPRC’s large multidisciplinary research team is nationally and internationally recognised for conducting evidence-based research to develop and evaluate practical school and community-based programs and training to promote child and adolescent health through family, school and community-based projects in the areas of:

  • bullying prevention and cessation (including cyberbullying)
  • mental health promotion
  • drug use prevention and cessation
  • road safety and injury control
  • healthy body weight

Through significant partnerships with government, non-government organisations, industry and community, the CHPRC’s research has generated new knowledge which has served children, families, communities and government throughout Australia. Their research outcomes have focused critically on understanding issues in diverse contexts, seeking locally relevant solutions for communities while informing state and national direction and policy. This is evident in CHPRC’s research outputs, described in detail for the area of bullying prevention in the next section.

Further information about the CHPRC can be found at www.chprc.ecu.edu.au

Child Health Promotion Research Centre Edith Cowan University Western Australia Child Health Promotion Research Centre

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

Cross, D., Hall, M., Erceg, E., Pintabona, Y., Hamilton, G., Roberts, C. (2003) The Friendly Schools Project: An empirically grounded school bullying prevention program. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 13(1):36-46.

Cross, D., Pintabona, Y., Hall, M., Hamilton, G., Erceg, E. 2004. Validated guidelines for school-based bullying prevention and management. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion. 6(3): 34-42.

Brown, D., Henley, N, Donovan, R., Cross, D. 2005. Marketing bullying prevention: A case for segmenting by unmet needs. Marketing, Tourism and Leisure Papers. Paper 8. http://ro.edu.edu.au/smatl_pubs/8.

Burns, S, Maycock, B., Cross, D., Brown, G. 2008. The Power of peers: why some students bully others to conform. Qualitative Health Research. 18; 1704-1716.

Burns, S., Maycock , B., Cross, D., Brown, G. 2008. ‘Woodpushers are gay’: The role of provocation in bullying. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion. 10(4): 40-49.

Burns, S, Cross, D, Alfonso, H, Maycock, B. 2008. Predictors of bullying among 11-12 year old school students in Australia. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion. 1(2): 49-60.

Runions, K. (2008) A Multi-Systemic School-Based Approach for Addressing Childhood Aggression. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling. 18(2): 106–127.

Waters, S., Cross, D. & Runions, K. 2009. Social and Ecological Structures Supporting Adolescent Connectedness to School: A Theoretical Model. Journal of School Health. 79(11): 516-524.

Dooley, J., Pyzalski, J., Cross, D. 2009. Cyber bullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Journal of Psychology Special Issue: Cyberbullying: Abusive relationships in cyberspace. 217(4): 182-188.

Cross, D., Monks, H., Hall, M., Shaw, T., Pintabona, Y., Erceg. E., Hamilton, G., Roberts, C., Waters, S., Lester, L. 2010. Three year results of the Friendly Schools whole-of-school intervention on children’s bullying behavior. British Educational Research Journal. First Published on: 24 February 2010 (iFirst). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920903420024

Waters, S., Cross, D. & Shaw, T. 2010. Does the nature of schools matter? An exploration of selected school ecology factors on adolescent perceptions of school connectedness. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 80(3): 381-402.

Burns, S., Cross, D., Maycock, B. 2010. “That could be me squishing chips on someone’s car” How Friends can positively influence bullying behaviours. Journal of Primary Prevention. 31(4): 209-222.

Perren, S; Dooley, J., Cross, D., Shaw, T. 2010. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents. In submission: Child and Adolescent Mental Health Journal. 4(28).

Campbell, M., Cross, D., Spears, B., Slee, P. 2010. Cyberbullying: Legal implications for schools. Centre for Strategic Education Occasional Paper 118 (non-peer reviewed), November.

Coffin, J., Cross, D., Larson, A. 2010 Bullying in an Aboriginal context. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education. 39: 77-87.

Dooley, J. Gradinger, P. Strohmeier, D. Cross, D., Spiel, C. 2010. Cyber-victimisation: The association between help-seeking behaviours and self-reported emotional symptoms in Australia and Austria. Accepted Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling. 20(2)194-209.

Waters, S. and Cross, D. (2010). Measuring students’ connectedness to school, teachers, and family: Validation of three scales. School Psychology Quarterly. 25(3): 164-167.

Waters, S., Cross, D. & Shaw, T. 2010. How Important are School and Interpersonal Student Characteristics in Determining Later Adolescent School Connectedness, by School Sector? Australian Journal of Education. 54(2): 223-243.

Dooley, J., Shaw, T., Cross, D. Student reactions to cyber-bullying and associated mental and emotional health symptoms. (In press 2011) The European Journal of Developmental Psychology.

Cross, D., Monks, H., Campbell, M., Spears, B., & Slee, P. 2011. School-based Strategies to Address Cyber bullying. Centre for Strategic Education Occasional Paper 119 (non-peer reviewed).

Pearce, N., Cross, D., Monks, H., Waters, S., Erceg, E., Falconer, S. 2011 Current evidence of best practice in whole-school bullying intervention and its potential to inform cyberbullying interventions. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling. 21(1): 1-21.

Cross, D., Epstein, M., Hearn, L., Slee, P., Shaw, T., & Monks, H. 2011. National Safe Schools Framework: Policy and practice to reduce bullying in Australian schools. International Journal of Behavioural Development. 35(5): 398-404.

Spears, B., Slee, P., Campbell, M., Cross, D. 2011. Educational change and youth voice: Informing school action on cyberbullying. Centre for Strategic Education Occasional Paper 208.

Slee, P., Spears, B., Campbell, M, Cross, D. 2011. Addressing Bullying and Cyberbullying in schools: Translating theory to practice. Centre for Strategic Education Occasional Paper 213.

Dooley, J.J., Shaw, T., Cross, D. 2012. The association between the mental health and behavioural problems of students and their reactions to cyber-victimisation. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. 9(2): 275-289

Lester, L., Cross, D, Shaw, T., Dooley, J. 2012. Adolescent bully-victims: Social health and the transition to secondary school. Cambridge Journal of Education. 42(2): 213-233.

Cross, D., Waters, S., Pearce, T., Shaw, T., Hall, M., Erceg, E., Burns, S., Roberts, C., Hamilton, G. 2012. The Friendly Schools Friendly Families Program: Three-year bullying behavior outcomes in primary school children. International Journal of Educational Research. 53: 394-406.

Shaw, T., Cross, D. 2012. The clustering of bullying and cyberbullying behaviours within Australian schools. Australian Journal of Education. 56(2): 142-162.

Baxendale, S., Cross, D., Johnston, R. 2012. A review of the evidence on the relationship between gender and adolescents’ involvement in violent behavior. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 17(4): 297-310.

Barnes, A., Cross, D., Lester, L., Hearn, L., Epstein, M., and Monks, H. 2012. The Invisibility of Covert Bullying Among Students: Challenges for School Intervention. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 22(2): 206-226.

Waters, S., Lester, L., Wenden, L., & Cross, D. 2012. A theoretically grounded exploration of the social and emotional outcomes of transition to secondary school. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 22(2): 190-205.

Cardoso, P., Thomas, L., Johnston, R., and Cross, D. 2012. Encouraging student access to and use of pastoral care services in schools. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 22(2): 227-248.

Lester, L., Dooley, J., Cross, D., Shaw, T. 2012. Internalising symptoms: An antecedent or precedent in adolescent peer victimization. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 22(2): 173-189.

Lester, L., Cross, D., Shaw, T. 2012. Problem behaviours, traditional bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents: longitudinal analyses. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. 17(3-4): 435-447.

Lester, L., Cross, D., Dooley, J., Shaw, T. 2012. Developmental trajectories of adolescent victimization: Predictors and outcomes. Social Influence. 1-24, iFirst (published online).

Shaw, T., Cross, D. 2012. The clustering of bullying and cyberbullying behaviours within Australian schools. Australian Journal of Education. 56(2): 142-162.

Cross, D. 2012. Editorial. Special Issue: The promotion of mental health and wellbeing in children and adolescents. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 22(2): iii-v

Cross, D. (In press 2013). Using the Health Promoting Schools Model to reduce harm from school bullying. Japanese Journal of School Health.

Shaw, T., Dooley, J., Cross, D., Zubrick, S.R., Waters, S. (in press 2013) The Forms of Bullying Scale (FBS): Validity and reliability estimates for a measure of bullying victimization and perpetration in early adolescence. Aggressive Behaviour.

Books / Book Chapters / Book Reviews

Bauman, S., Cross, D., Walker, J. (Editors) (2012). Principles of Cyberbullying Research: Definition, Methods and Measures. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-89749-5.

Bauman, S., Cross, D. (2012). Methods: Guiding principles. In Bauman, S, Cross, D., Walker, J. (Eds) Principles of Cyberbullying Research: Definition, Methods and Measures. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-89749-5.

Cross, D., Walker, J. (2012). Using research to inform cyberbullying prevention and intervention. In Bauman, S, Cross, D., Walker, J. (Eds) Principles of Cyberbullying Research: Definition, Methods and Measures. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-89749-5.

Cross, D., Shaw, T., Dooley, J.J., Epstein, M., Hearn, L., & Monks, H. (in press). Cyberbullying in Australia: Is school context related to cyberbullying behaviour? In Li, Q., Cross, D., & Smith, P. (Eds.) Bullying goes to the cyber playground: Research on cyberbullying from an international perspective.

Li, Q., Smith, P.K., Cross, D. (2012). Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 978-1-4443-3376-3

Cross, D., Shaw, T., Dooley, J.J., Epstein, M., Hearn, L. & Monks, H. (2012). Cyberbullying in Australia: Is school context related to cyberbullying behaviour? In Q. Li, D. Cross, & P.K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 978-1-4443-3376-3

Cross, D., Li, Q. Smith, P. & Monks, H. (2012). Understanding and Preventing cyberbullying: Where have we been and where should we be going? In Q. Li, D. Cross, & P.K. Smith (Eds.). Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Cross, D., Shaw, T., Monks, H., Waters, S., Lester, L. (2009) Using evidence to reduce bullying among girls. In A Focus on Relationships: Understanding and Addressing Aggressive Behaviour Problems, In press.

Cross, D., Shaw, T., Pearce, N., Erceg, E., Waters, S., Pintabona, Y., Hall, M. (2008) School-based intervention research to reduce bullying in Australia 1999-2007: what works, what doesn’t and what’s promising. In Understanding and addressing bullying: an international perspective. Editors: Pepler, D and Craig, W. PREVNet Series, Volume 1. AuthorHouse. Indiana, USA. ISBN 978-1-4343-8866-7(sc).

Cross, D., Hall, M., Hamilton, G., Pintabona, Y., Erceg, E. (2004) Australia: The Friendly Schools Project, in Bullying in Schools: Global Perspectives on Intervention. Editors: Peter K Smith, Debra Peplar, Ken Rigby Cambridge University Press. Cambridge UK. ISBN 0-521-821193

Published Reports to Government and Non-government Organisations

Cross, D., Shaw, T., Hearn, L., Epstein, M., Monks, H., Lester, L., & Thomas, L. (2009). Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study (ACBPS). Child Health Promotion Research Centre, Edith Cowan University, Perth. Available to view or download from the Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations website: www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/NationalSafeSchools/Pages/research.aspx

Dooley, J.J., Cross, D., Hearn, L., Treyvaud, R. (2009). Review of existing Australian and international cyber-safety research. Child Health Promotion Research Centre, Edith Cowan University, Perth. Available to view or download from the Australian Government Department of Broadband , Communications and the Digital Economy website: www.dbcde.gov.au/funding_and_programs/cybersafety_plan/cybersafety_research